Why did Mary Magdalene not recognize Jesus in John 20?
ANSWER: Consider, first, the physical suffering and abuse at the hands of the Romans. He was scourged, his beard torn from His face, the crown of thorns forced upon His Head, plus other acts of violence against Him. But, most of all, because on Him were laid the total sins of the human race from Adam until the end of time.
This is beyond our understanding. For all these reasons, Isaiah 52 prophesied that His visage or appearance was more marred than anyone had ever been. That was the last mental picture of Jesus that Mary had. Also, she, nor any of the other followers of Jesus, including the 12, had any idea that He would be raised from the dead. Luke 18:31 & 32, John 20:9.
No wonder Mary, on first impression, did not think of seeing Jesus in a glorious, resurrected body with only the nail prints and the spear wound as evidence of His suffering. She recognized Him primarily by His voice.